The problems and demands in process-simulation are far beyond a simple description of the flow- and temperature field. More often than not, the mass-transport, thermodynamics and reaction kinetics have to be taken into consideration, as demonstrated in the process of hot-dip galvanizing [Mataln2015].

In other fields, additional physical phenomena occur, which have to be modelled, like the electro-deposition process. In this case, not only the flow-field and the mass-diffusion of the species, but also the effects of the electric field and migration of ions have to be calculated.